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KodeCloud Kubernetes Networking

Links: 111 KodeCloud Index


In Docker an IP address is assigned to a container whereas in k8s IP address is always assigned to a pod.
  • When k8s is initially configured an internal private network is configured with the address range of and all the pods are attached to it.

    • When we deploy multiple pods they are assigned a specific IP address from this address.
    • The pods can communicate each other through this IP.
      • Not the ideal way of establishing communication since the IP addresses can change when pods are recreated.
    • attachments/Pasted image 20220921215907.jpg
  • How does networking work in a cluster (multiple nodes)?

  • From the above example if we have 2 nodes which are not a part of a cluster they will have the same IP address range.
    • attachments/Pasted image 20220921220137.jpg
    • This isn't going to work
  • When a k8s cluster is setup it doesn't automatically setup a network to handle networking.
  • K8s expects us to setup networking to meet certain requirements.
  • These requirements are:

    • All containers/PODs can communicate to one another WITHOUT NAT.
    • All nodes can communicate with all containers and vice-versa WITHOUT NAT.
  • We don't have to setup it from scratch and have help from different sources. This would be needed if we are setting up the cluster from scratch.

    • attachments/Pasted image 20220921220612.jpg
  • Once setup they are responsible for managing the networking.

    • It assigns different network address for each network in the node thereby creating a virtual network.
    • attachments/Pasted image 20220921220832.jpg
  • Different ways of accessing the pod inside k8s cluster

    • attachments/Pasted image 20220921221154.jpg
    • attachments/Pasted image 20220921221229.jpg : Node port service
  • Different service types

    • attachments/Pasted image 20220921221406.jpg
TargetPort is the port of the pod to which the service forwards the request.

In short TargetPort is the target for the service. All the terms are from the view point of the service. attachments/Pasted image 20220921222726.jpg

  • In a service definition file the only mandatory field is port.

    • If you don't provide NodePort it is assigned by k8s
    • If you don't provide TargetPort it is assumed to be same as Port.
    • Ports is an array and we can have multiple such port mappings.
  • Sample service file

    apiVersion: vl
    kind: Service
        name: myapp-service
        # we can also provide labels but they are not necessary
        type: NodePort
         - targetPort: 80
           port: 80
           nodePort: 30008
        # no match labels key inside selector like we had in ReplicaSet
            app: myapp

  • Service acts as a load balancer with a random algorithm with a SessionAffinity set to Yes.

  • What happens when pods are distributed across nodes?

    • We can use IP of any of the nodes.
    • attachments/Pasted image 20220921223309.jpg
  • Use of ClusterIP

    • attachments/Pasted image 20220921223928.jpg
    • Each layer can scale and move without impacting communication between various services.
  • Each service gets an IP and name assigned to it and that is the name that should be used by other pods to access the service.

    • Application code which needs to communicate with other pods in a different service should also use this name.
    • attachments/Pasted image 20220921225516.jpg
    • Instead of hardcoding we should be using environment variables.
  • ClusterIP is the default type.

  • Disadvantage of NodePort

    • Even if we have pods on only 2 out of 4 nodes they are accessible from the IP addresses of all the nodes.
    • attachments/Pasted image 20220921224350.jpg
We can bootstrap a k8s cluster from scratch using kubeadm

Last updated: 2022-10-10